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The major monsoon systems are associated with the seasonal movement of convergence zones over land, leading to profound seasonal changes in local hydrological cycles. Section 14.2 assesses current understanding of monsoonal behaviour in the present and future climate, how monsoon characteristics are influenced by the large-scale tropical modes of variability and their potential changes and how the monsoons in turn affect regional extremes. Convergence zones over the tropical oceans not only play a fundamental role in determining regional climates but also influence the global atmospheric circulation. Section 14.3 presents an assessment of these and other important tropical phenomena.

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