AR4 summarized that globally the troposphere had warmed at a rate greater than the GMST over the radiosonde record, while over the shorter satellite era the GMST and tropospheric warming rates were indistinguishable. Trends in the tropics were more uncertain than global trends although even this region was concluded to be warming. Globally, the stratosphere was reported to be cooling over the satellite era starting in 1979. New advances since AR4 have highlighted the substantial degree of uncertainty in both satellite and balloon-borne radiosonde records and led to some revisions and improvements in existing products and the creation of a number of new data products.