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Chapter 4—Observations: Cryosphere[]

This chapter is part of the Fifth Assessment Report of Working Group I. Original text

as published

CLA (Coordinating Lead Authors)[]

LA (Lead Authors)[]

Contributing Authors (Click "Expand" to see list)[]

  • Anthony A. Arendt (USA)
  • David B. Bahr (USA)
  • Michiel van den Broeke (Netherlands)
  • Ross Brown (Canada)
  • J. Graham Cogley (Canada)
  • Alex S. Gardner (USA)
  • Sebastian Gerland (Norway)
  • Stephan Gruber (Switzerland)
  • Christian Haas (Canada)
  • Jon Ove Hagen (Norway)
  • Regine Hock (USA)
  • David Holland (USA)
  • Matthias Huss (Switzerland)
  • Thorsten Markus (USA)
  • Ben Marzeion (Austria)
  • Rob Massom (Australia)
  • Geir Moholdt (USA)
  • Pier Paul Overduin (Germany)
  • Antony Payne (UK)
  • W. Tad Pfeffer (USA)
  • Terry Prowse (Canada)
  • Valentina Radić (Canada)
  • David Robinson (USA)
  • Martin Sharp (Canada)
  • Nikolay Shiklomanov (USA)
  • Sharon Smith (Canada)
  • Sharon Stammerjohn (USA)
  • Isabella Velicogna (USA)
  • Peter Wadhams (UK)
  • Anthony Worby (Australia)
  • Lin Zhao (China)

154 Executive Summary[]

154.1 Introduction[]

154.2 Sea Ice[]

  • 154.2.1 Background
  • 154.2.2 Arctic Sea Ice
  • 154.2.3 Antarctic Sea Ice

154.3 Glaciers[]

  • 154.3.1 Current Area and Volume of Glaciers
  • 154.3.2 Methods to Measure Changes in Glacier Length, Area and Volume/Mass
  • 154.3.3 Observed Changes in Glacier Length, Area and Mass

154.4 Ice Sheets[]

  • 154.4.1 Background
  • 154.4.2 Changes in Mass of Ice Sheets
  • 154.4.3 Total Ice Loss from Both Ice Sheets
  • 154.4.4 Causes of Changes in Ice Sheets
  • 154.4.5 Rapid Ice Sheet Changes

154.5 Seasonal Snow[]

  • 154.5.1 Background
  • 154.5.2 Hemispheric View
  • 154.5.3 Trends from In Situ Measurements
  • 154.5.4 Changes in Snow Albedo
  • 154 Box 4.1: Interactions of Snow within the Cryosphere

154.6 Lake and River Ice[]

154.7 Frozen Ground[]

  • 154.7.1 Background
  • 154.7.2 Changes in Permafrost
  • 154.7.3 Subsea Permafrost
  • 154.7.4 Changes in Seasonally Frozen Ground

154.8 Synthesis[]

154 References[]

  • 154 Appendix 4.A: Details of Available and Selected Ice Sheet Mass Balance Estimates from 1992 to 2012
  • 154 Frequently Asked Questions
  • 154 FAQ 4.1 How Is Sea Ice Changing in the Arctic and Antarctic?
  • 154 FAQ 4.2 Are Glaciers in Mountain Regions Disappearing?

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